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Medical Device Quality Production and Process Controls

Updated: Feb 17


The development, manufacturing, and distribution of medical devices are intricate processes that demand utmost precision and adherence to stringent regulations to ensure the safety and well-being of patients. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) plays a pivotal role in safeguarding public health by implementing comprehensive guidelines for medical device manufacturers. Among these regulations lies Title 21, Part 820, which establishes the Quality System Regulation (QSR) for Medical Devices. Within this regulation, Sec. 820.70 holds paramount importance as it addresses Production and Process Controls, laying down the foundation for maintaining consistency, efficacy, and compliance throughout the entire manufacturing process.

The development, manufacturing, and distribution of medical devices are intricate processes that demand utmost precision and adherence to stringent regulations to ensure the safety and well-being of patients. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) plays a pivotal role in safeguarding public health by implementing comprehensive guidelines for medical device manufacturers. Among these regulations lies Title 21, Part 820, which establishes the Quality System Regulation (QSR) for Medical Devices. Within this regulation, Sec. 820.70 holds paramount importance as it addresses Production and Process Controls, laying down the foundation for maintaining consistency, efficacy, and compliance throughout the entire manufacturing process.


Sec. 820.70 encompasses a multitude of critical aspects that manufacturers must diligently abide by to uphold the highest standards of product quality. From defining device specifications to implementing process control procedures, this section encompasses a comprehensive set of requirements that dictate the path towards excellence in medical device manufacturing. As we delve into the intricacies of Sec. 820.70, we will explore its key elements and gain insights into how manufacturers can effectively adhere to these guidelines.


Understanding FDA Requirements


1. General Requirements

Sec. 820.70(a) emphasizes the need for manufacturers to establish comprehensive process control procedures that effectively describe and control the manner of production. To achieve this, the following elements are crucial:

  • Documented Instructions and SOP's: Manufacturers must develop clear and well-documented instructions and standard operating procedures (SOP's) to ensure consistency and uniformity in the production process.

  • Monitoring and Control of Process Parameters: Continuous monitoring and control of critical process parameters are essential to maintaining consistency and product quality. This involves regularly assessing and adjusting the manufacturing process as needed.

  • Compliance with Reference Standards or Codes: Adherence to specified reference standards or codes is necessary to ensure that the medical device meets all necessary safety and performance criteria.

  • Approval of Processes and Equipment: Prior to implementation, all processes and process equipment must undergo approval to verify their appropriateness and efficiency.

  • Criteria for Workmanship: Establishing criteria for workmanship, expressed through documented standards or representative samples, is vital to ensure uniformity and consistency in the final product.

2. Production and Process Changes

Sec. 820.70(b) requires manufacturers to maintain procedures for changes to specifications, methods, processes, or procedures. These changes must be verified or validated before implementation, and proper documentation must be maintained. To manage production and process changes effectively:

  • Establish a Change Control System: Implement a robust change control system to document and manage all proposed changes to the production process.

  • Perform Verification and Validation: Ensure that any changes undergo thorough verification and, where applicable, validation to assess their impact on product quality and safety.

  • Document All Activities: Keep meticulous records of all activities related to the proposed changes, including approvals and validations.

3. Environmental Control

Sec. 820.70(c) highlights the importance of adequately controlling environmental conditions that may have an adverse effect on product quality. To comply with this requirement:

  • Identify Critical Environmental Factors: Identify all environmental factors that may influence product quality and establish controls to mitigate their impact.

  • Regular Inspection of Environmental Control Systems: Conduct periodic inspections of the environmental control systems to verify their effectiveness and proper functioning. Maintain detailed records of these inspections.

4. Personnel Requirements

Sec. 820.70(d) emphasizes the need to establish and maintain requirements for the health, cleanliness, personal practices, and clothing of personnel involved in the manufacturing process. To meet this requirement:

  • Provide Proper Training: Ensure that all personnel are adequately trained in relevant hygiene and cleanliness practices to minimize contamination risks.

  • Supervision and Monitoring: Implement supervision and monitoring protocols to ensure that personnel follow the prescribed practices and maintain high hygiene standards.

5. Contamination Control

Sec. 820.70(e) necessitates the establishment and maintenance of procedures to prevent equipment or product contamination. To maintain compliance:

  • Implement Effective Contamination Control Procedures: Develop robust procedures to prevent the introduction of contaminants during the manufacturing process.

  • Routine Equipment Maintenance: Implement a regular maintenance schedule to ensure that equipment remains contamination-free.

6. Building and Equipment Requirements

Sec. 820.70(f) and (g) specify requirements related to building design and equipment used in the manufacturing process. To adhere to these provisions:

  • Design Suitable Buildings: Ensure that buildings are designed to facilitate efficient and orderly handling of materials and products, preventing mix-ups.

  • Equipment Compliance: Ensure that all equipment used in the manufacturing process meets specified requirements and is appropriately designed and installed.

  • Implement Maintenance Schedules: Regularly maintain and inspect equipment to ensure compliance with manufacturing specifications.

7. Manufacturing Material Control

Sec. 820.70(h) emphasizes the need for manufacturers to establish and maintain procedures for the use and removal of manufacturing material that may adversely affect product quality.

  • Identify Critical Manufacturing Materials: Identify materials that may impact product quality and establish controls to prevent their negative effects.

  • Document Removal or Reduction Activities: Maintain documentation of the removal or reduction of manufacturing materials that could impact product quality.

8. Automated Processes and Software Validation

Sec. 820.70(i) focuses on the use of computers and automated data processing systems in production. To comply:

  • Validate Computer Software: Ensure that all computer software used in production is validated for its intended use according to an established protocol.

  • Document Software Changes and Validation Results: Keep meticulous records of all software changes and validation activities.

Tips and Advice for Compliance

Compliance with Sec. 820.70 and the QSR for Medical Devices is crucial to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medical products in the market. Here are some valuable tips and advice to maintain compliance:

  1. Establish Robust Quality Management Systems: Implement comprehensive quality management systems that cover all aspects of production and process controls. Regularly review and update these systems to meet changing regulatory requirements.

  2. Invest in Employee Training: Provide thorough training to all personnel involved in the manufacturing process. Educate them about proper procedures, hygiene practices, and compliance requirements.

  3. Document Everything: Keep detailed and accurate records of all activities related to production and process controls. This documentation will serve as evidence of compliance during audits or inspections.

  4. Conduct Regular Audits and Inspections: Perform internal audits and inspections regularly to identify areas for improvement and to rectify any non-compliance issues promptly.

  5. Stay Updated with Regulatory Changes: Stay informed about any changes or updates to the QSR for Medical Devices. This proactive approach will help you adapt your processes accordingly.

  6. Collaborate with Suppliers and Contractors: If you work with external suppliers or contractors, ensure that they also adhere to the QSR requirements. Collaborate closely to maintain product quality and safety.

  7. Risk Management: Implement a robust risk management process to identify and mitigate potential risks associated with production and process controls.


To maintain compliance with Sec. 820.70 and uphold the highest standards of product quality, manufacturers must embrace a proactive approach to compliance. By investing in robust quality management systems, manufacturers can establish a culture of excellence that permeates throughout their organization. Regular audits and inspections, both internal and external, provide an opportunity for continuous improvement and identification of areas that require attention.


Employee training is of utmost importance, ensuring that all personnel involved in the manufacturing process are well-versed in compliance requirements, hygiene practices, and contamination control protocols. Empowered and well-informed employees become the first line of defense against any potential risks to product quality.


Furthermore, collaboration with suppliers and contractors ensures that all parties involved uphold the same high standards of product quality and compliance. Transparent communication and cooperation foster a culture of shared responsibility in delivering safe and effective medical devices to the market.


Contact BioBoston Consulting or visit our website to learn more about how we can support your organization.

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